Tips for Thermal Energy Conservation
- Undertake regular energy audits.
- Plug all oil leakage. Leakage of one drop of oil per second amounts to a loss of over 2000 liters/year.
- Filter oil in stages. Impurities in oil affect combustion.
- Pre-heat the oil. For proper combustion, oil should be at right viscosity at the burner tip. Provide adequate Pre-heat capacity.
- Incomplete combustion leads to wastage of fuel. Observe the colour of smoke emitted from chimney. Black smoke indicates improper combustion and fuel wastage. White smoke indicates excess air & hence loss of heat. Hazy brown smoke indicates proper combustion.
- Use of Low air pressure ???film burners??? helps save oil upto 15% in furnaces.
- Recover & utilize waste heat from furnace flue gase for preheating of combustion air. Every 210C rise in combustion air temperature results in 1% fuel oil savings.
- Control excess air in furnaces. A 10% drop in excess air amounts to 1% saving of fuel in furnaces. For an annual consumption of 3000 kl. of furnace oil. This means a saving of Rs 3 Lacs. (Cost of furnace oil-Rs. 10 per litre).
- Reduce heat losses through furnace openings. Observations show that a furnace operating at a temperature of 10000C having an open door (1500mm*750mm) results in a fuel loss of 10 lit/hr. For a 4000 hrs. furnace operation this translates into a loss of approx. Rs. 4 Lacs per year.
- Improve insulation if the surface temperature exceeds 200C above ambient. Studies have revealed that heat loss form a furnace wall 115mm thick at 6500C amounting to 2650 Kcal/m2/hr can be cut down to 850 kcal/m2/he by using 65 mm thick insulation on the 115 mm wall.
- Proper design of lids of melting furnaces and training of operators to close lids helps reduce losses by 10-20% in foundries.
- Remove soot deposits when flue gas temperature raises 400C above the normal. A coating of 3mm thick soot on the heat transfer surface can cause an increase in fuel consumption of as much as 2.5%.
- Recover heat from steam condense. For every 60C rise in boiler feed water temperature through condense return, there is 1% saving in fuel.
- Improve boiler efficiency. Boilers should be monitored for flue gas losses, radiation losses, incomplete combustion, blow down losses, excess air etc. Proper control can decrease the consumption upto 20%.
- Use only treated water in boilers. A scale formation of 1mm thickness on the waterside would increase fuel consumption by 5-8%.
- Stop steam leakage. Steam leakage from a 3 mm-diameter hole on a pipeline carrying steam at 7kg/cm2 would waste 32 kl of fuel oil per year amounting to a loss of Rs. 3 Lacs.
- Maintain steam pipe insulation. It has been estimated that a bare steam pipe, 150 mm in diameter and 100m in length, carrying saturated steam at 8kg/cm2 would waste 25 kl of furnace oil in a year amounting to an annual loss of Rs. 2.5 Lacs.
- Maintain diesel engines regularly.
- A poorly maintained injection pump increases fuel consumption by 4Gms/KWH.
- A faulty nozzle increases fuel consumption by 2Gms/KWH.
- Blocked filters increase fuel consumption by 2Gms/KWH.
- A continuously running DG set can generate 0.5 Ton/Hr of steam at 10 to 12 bars from the residual heat of the engine exhaust per MW of the generator capacity.
- Measure fuel consumption per KWH of electricity generated regularly. Take corrective action in case this shows a rising trend.
Tips for Electrical Energy Conservation
- Improve power factor by installing capacitors to reduce KVA demand charges and also line losses within plant.
- Improvement of power factor from 0.85 to 0.96 will give 11.5% reduction of peak KVA and 21.6% reduction in peak losses. This corresponds to 14.5% reduction in average losses for a load factor of 0.8.
- Avoid repeated rewinding of motors. Observations show that rewound motors practically have an efficiency loss of upto 5%. This is mainly due to increase in no load losses. Hence use such rewound motors on low duty cycle applications only.
- Use of variable frequency drives, slip power recovery systems and fluid couplings for variable speed applications such as fans, pumps etc. helps in minimizing consumption.
- Use of electronic ballast in place of conventional choke saves energy upto 20%.
- Use of CFL lamp in place of GLS lamp can save energy upto 70%.
- Clean the lamps & fixtures regularly. Illumination levels fall by 20-30% due to collection of dust.
- Use of 36W tubelight instead of 40 W tubelight saves electricity by 8 to 10%.
- Use of sodium vapour lamps for area lighting in place of Mercury vapour lamps saves electricity upto 40%.
- Compressed air is very energy intensive. Only 5% of electrical energy are converted to useful energy. Use of compressed air for cleaning is rarely justified.
- Ensure low temperature of inlet air. Increase in inlet air temperature by 30C increases power consumption by 1%.
- It should be examined whether air at lower pressure can be used in the process. Reduction in discharge pressure by 10% saves energy consumption upto 5%.
- A leakage from a ????? diameter hole from a compressed air line working at a pressure of 7kg/cm2 can drain almost Rs. 2500 per day.
- Air output of compressors per unit of electricity input must be measured at regular intervals. Efficiency of compressors tends to deteriorate with time.
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning
- Use of double doors, automatic door closers, air curtains, double glazed windows, polyester sun films etc. reduces heat ingress and air-conditioning load of buildings.
- Maintain condensers for proper heat exchange. A 50C decrease in evaporator temperature increases the specific power consumption by 15%.
- Utillisation of air-conditioned/refrigerated space should be examined and efforts made to reduce cooling load as far as possible.
- Utillise waste heat of excess rolex replica or flue gases to change over from gas compression systems to absorption chilling systems and save energy costs in the range of 50-70%.
- Specific power consumption of compressors should be measured at regular intervals. The most efficient compressors to be used for continuous duty and others on standby.
- Replacement of inefficient aluminum or fabricated steel fans by moulded FRP fans with aerofoil designs results in electricity savings in the range of 15-0%.
- A study on a typical 20ft. diameter fan revealed that replacing wooden blade drift eliminators with newly developed cellular PVC drift eliminators reduces the drift losses from 0.01-0.02% with a fan power energy saving of 10%.
- Install automatic steam fake watches ON-OFF switching of cooling tower fans and save upto 40% on electricity costs.
- Use of PVC fills in place of wooden bars results in a saving in pumping power of upto 20%.
- Improper selection of pumps can lead to large wastage of energy. A pump with 85% efficiency at rated flow may have only 65% efficiency at half the flow.
- Use of throttling valves instead of variable speed drives to change flow of fluids is a wasteful practice. Throttling can cause wastage of power to the tune of 50 to 60%.
- It is advisable to use a number of replica watches uk pumps in series and parallel to cope with variations in operating conditions by switching on or off pumps rather than running one large pump with partial load.
- Drive transmission between pumps & motors is very important. Loose belts can cause energy loss upto 1-20%.
- Modern synthetic flat belts in place of conventional V-belts can save 5% to 10% of energy.
- Properly organized maintenance is very important. Efficiency of worn out pumps can drop by 10-15% unless maintained properly.
- Energy Auditors empanelment scheme
- Energy Audit subsidy scheme
- Soft loan for purchase of energy audit equipment's & instruments.
Besides these, PCRA also conducts Energy audits, Fuel Oil diagnostic studies, Studies in small scale industries, Follow-up???s; Organizes technical meets, Consumer meets, Seminars, Institutional training programmers, Workshops, Clinics; helps in organizing Action Group meetings and puts up stalls in exhibitions on conservation of petroleum products
- Good Driving Habits
How to make every drop last longer
- Drive between 45-55 Km/H
- Drive slow and steady. The faster you go, the more wind resistance your vehicle will face. If you go at speeds above 60 Km/H, you will waste petrol. Tests on Indian cars prove that you can get up to 40 % extra mileage at 45-55 Km/H as against 80 Km/H.
- Avoid accelerating or decelerating unnecessarily.
- Avoid banking by anticipating stops and curves well in advance.
- Tests show that a reduction in speed leads to no appreciable rise in commuting time. Much less than what most people think.
Keep your engine healthy
Tests on a large number of cars prove that you can save as much as 6% by tuning your car regularly. If your engine emits black smoke, has poor pulling power or consumes large quantities of oil, get it checked immediately at a reputed garage. A delay, may prove more expensive in terms of petrol and oil as compared to the cost of an overhaul.
Use of bi-metallic spark plugs saves over 1.5% fuel and reduces exhaust emissions too. Get your car serviced at every 5000 kms.
Drive in the Correct Gear
Incorrect gear shifting can lead to as much as 20% increase in fuel consumption. Start your car in the 1st gear only, except if you are in a muddy patch or going downhill then engage the 2nd gear.
For city driving, change to a higher gear when you are sure the engine will not struggle. Get into top gear as soon as possible.
Use same gear for uphill and downhill journey.
It is advisable to follow the manufacturer's recommendation.
Don???t wait for your car to warm up
Instead, drive in low gear till the engine warms up. Use choke briefly only when necessary.
At 10??C and below, your fuel consumption per kilometer doubles when you make trips of 5 kms or less. So combine trips.
Do not park a car so that you have to reverse with a cold engine This will consume more fuel.
Install engine-heating system (in cold regions) in your car if it does not have one.
Good Braking Habits
Stop-and-go driving wastes fuel. When you slam on the brakes, a lot of useful energy is wasted in the form of heat. A good driver always anticipates stops.
Test wheels for free rotation when your car is being serviced. Binding of brakes restricts free wheel movement and the engine consumes more petrol in order to overcome resistance.
Check wheel alignment at regular intervals.
Keep your Foot off the Clutch
Use clutch only when you change gears. Riding the clutch causes loss of energy and damages clutch-linings.
Use your handbrake when stopped on an upgrade and don???t forget to release it when restarting.
Don???t manipulate the clutch and accelerator to stay stationary because it wastes fuel.
Clean Air Filter Regularly
Air filter prevents dust from Fouling the engine. Dust causes rapid wear of engine components and increases fuel consumption.
Cylinder bores wear out 45 times faster in engines without air-cleaners
Clean air filters at every time-up.
Watch Your Tyre Pressure
Under inflated tyres increase rolling resistance, which leads to higher petrol consumption.
Tests show that a 25% decrease in tyre pressure can cost you 5-10% more on petrol and 25% on tyre life.
Use radial tyres for 3-7% fuel economy, longer tyre life and greater riding comfort.
When you stop your car, stop engine
Always keep your car ready to start. Keep the battery, dynamo, self-starter and fan-belt in good condition. This will ensure a quick start whenever you need it.
Switch off the engine at stops of over 2 minutes.
Use the Recommended grade of oil
Check the car manual and oil manufacturer???s recommendations, before using any particular grade of oil. Always use multi-grade oil equivalent to SPCC/SGCC type for added benefits.
Engine oil that is thicker than the recommended oil can cause 2% increase in fuel consumption.
Change oil filter along with engine oil.
Plan Your Route
Rush hour, or stop-and-go traffic, can waste fuel excessively. You will get more mileage from each litre if you take a less congested route, even though it is slightly longer.
Fuel consumption in a highly congested road can be double the normal.
Unnecessary loads increase fuel consumption. Do you really need to carry the luggage rack?
A reduction of weight by 50 kg can lead up to 2% saving in fuel, when driving in the city. Remember that overhead racks increase wind resistance leading to higher fuel consumption.
Share Your car-for car pools
Look for people who go in the same direction as you. You can share your car and the costs.
Plan Your Trips
Before you start on a trip, ask yourself two questions:
Is this trip really essential?
Can I combine this trip with other trips in the same direction?
Make Gas & Kerosene last longer
Do you know that housewives can save upto 30% of cooking gas or kerosene by following a few simple ???fuel???saving tips????
We at PCRA have conducted a series of experiments on how to save cooking gas or kerosene. This was done in collaboration with the Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. (R&D Center), and the Institute of Hotel Management and Catering & Applied Nutrition, NEW Delhi. Our experiments have revealed that it is possible to save upto 30% of cooking gas or kerosene by following good cooking practices. It will be surprising to discover that certain cooking habits cause substantial waste of fuel.
Given below are a few tips on how to minimize losses and get value for the money you spend on cooking gas or kerosene:-
A few minutes of planning ensures a big fuel saving
Every thrifty you can avoid an idle flame if you prepare and keep all materials required for cooking within reach, before lighting the stove. Experiments have revealed that keeping the flame of the larger burner burning unnecessarily in a gas stove, results Even a few paise saved everyday will amount to a sizeable saving by the end of a month.
Light your stove only after you have kept all the ingredients within your reach and ready for cooking. Put off an idle flame at once.
Pressure cooking saves fuel
Pressure cooking is one of the fastest and most economical ways of cooking. Experiments have shown fuel (kerosene or cooking gas) savings of 20% on rice, 46% on soaked gram dal and 41.5% on meat, as compared to ordinary cooking. The savings in cooking time were equally high. To obtain further savings from a pressure cooker, use the separators of the cooker to cook different items such as rice, vegetable and dal, all at the same time. Just think of the fuel and money you will save! And have your entire meal ready quickly.
Pressure cooking saves duel and time. Use separators in the pressure cooker to cook different items at the same time.
Use optimum quantity of water
The quantity of water used differs for various dishes. And even for the same dish, different housewives use varying quantities of water. Since water is extensively used in cooking, you should remember that surplus water wastes fuel. Besides, when the excess water is drained subsequently, precious nutrients are lost. An experiment on cooking rice with double the required quantity of water has revealed that fuel consumption increased by 65% So use only the optimum quantity of water for cooking.
Surplus water consumes additional fuel which could otherwise be saved.
Reduce the flame when boiling starts
When a vessel???s contents reach boiling point, a low flame is enough to keep them boiling. Addition of more heat at the boiling stage causes further evaporation of the liquid without serving any useful purpose. Hence, when water or any other liquid is boiling, reduction in the flame will reduce wastage. This is possible in a gas stove by turning the know to ???simmer??? position or in a kerosene stove by lowering the wicks. Experiments conducted have revealed a saving of 25% fuel when the flame was reduced after boiling had started. Try it yourself. You will find that the time taken to cook is just the same.
Always reduce the flame once boiling starts.
Soak before cooking
Experiments have shown that soaking ingredients such as dal and rice for various intervals of time before cooking saves fuel. 250 gms of kabuli chana (chick peas) when soaked overnight in water consumed 22% less fuel as compared to the fuel required for the same quantity of unsoaked kabuli chana.
Sizeable savings in fuel are possible if you soak cereals in water before cooking.
Shallow, wide vessels save fuel
A visible flame touching the sides of vessel wastes fuel since it gives out heat to the surroundings. But if you cover the flame as much as possible by using a broad vessel, you will save fuel. Our tests have established that for most stoves, a vessel of 25 cm. Diameter is ideal for cooking. A vessel of this diameter tends to cover the flame completely. Where a narrower vessel cannot be avoided, try and reduce the flame so that it does not creep up on the sides of the vessel.
Hide the flame with broad bottomed, vessel. Do not use vessels which are narrow as they allow the flame to creep up on the sides.
Put the lid on heat losses
It is a good practice to cover cooking vessels and pans with a lid, as an open vessel loses heat to the atmosphere which means a waste of fuel. A vessel of 100sq.cm. opening , containing not water at 96??C would waste 7.2 GMs Of gas per hour. The heat loss would increase by 2-1/2 times if there is wind blowing through the kitchen. If the vessel is covered by a lid , the heat loss would drop appreciably to 1.45 gm. Of gas per hour as heat is retained within the vessel.
Always place a lid on an open cooking vessel or pan.
The small burner saves fuel
A cooking gas stove has a big burner and a small burner. The small burner consumes 6% to 10% less gas than the big burner ! An experiment on cooking 250 GMs Of potatoes revealed that the small burner consumed 6.5% less gas but look 7 minutes more than the big burner. Similarly in a kerosene stove, by cooking at lower flame you will use less fuel. You can now imagine how much fuel is being avoidably wasted.
True, the small burner of the lower flame takes a little more time to complete cooking, but then you are not always in such a hurry that you can afford to waste fuel.
Use the small burner or lower flame more often, as the case may be especially when you have time to spare.
A clean burner helps save fuel
It is important to/clean the burner of your gas range regularly and trim or replace the wicks of the kerosene stove. Soot clogged gas burners and charred wick-ends of a kerosene stove increase fuel consumption. Regular maintenance of your stove helps you save fuel. In case stove knobs do not more freely, get them attended to.
A bright, steady blue flame means efficient burning. If you see an orange, yellow on non-uniform flame, clean the burner or wick as the case may be.
For additional saving
The use of ???ISI??? marked kerosene wick stoves in place of non-???IST??? marked stove saves upto 25% of kerosene and the use of higher efficiency ???ISI??? marked LPG stove (the thermal efficiency level of which is 68%+) saves upto 15% of gas.
Clean vessels help too
A coating of undissolved salts is usually found on the insides of kettles and cookers. Even a millimeter thick coating can reduce the flow of heat to the vessel???s contents. This increases your fuel consumption by as much as 10%.
Cooking vessels should always be scrubbed clean.
Allow frozen food to reach room temperature before cooking
Cold milk, frozen meal or any other cold food-stuff from the refrigerator should not be taken straight to the cooking pot. Keep it out of the refrigerator should not be taken straight to the cooking pot. Keep it out of the refrigerator for some time before putting if on the stove. Very cold food consumes a larger amount of fuel.
Plan your meal timings
If all members of the family eat together, which signifies togetherness and increases joy, frequent reheating of food before serving can be avoided. If eating together is not possible, store cooked, hot food in insulated containers to serve it hot later.
Simple tips for saving diesel in tractors
Your manual will tell you everything you need to know about the maintenance and operation of your tractor. Research shows that a badly maintained tractor wastes up to 25 % of precious diesel.
When it doubt, check with a reputed garage or your dealer.
Stop diesel leaks
Check your tractor daily. A leak of one drop per second can cost you 2000 liters of diesel per year.
Inspect joints in Fuel tank, Fuel pump, Fuel injector and Fuel lines.
Turn your engine off, when you stop
An idling tractor wastes more than 1 liter of diesel every hour.
Keep your battery, alternator and self-starter in top running condition. If they are faulty they can force you to idle.
Drive in the correct gear-always
If your tractor struggles to pull a load with the throttle at maximum, shift to a lower gear. If it accelerates, shift to a higher gear. Wrong gear selection can increase fuel consumption by 30% and reduce field output by 50%.
Smoke from a tractor indicates overloading.
Does your tractor smoke, too?
A tractor that smokes excessively wastes precious diesel. Oversized implements or using the wrong gear, cause tractor smoke. If your tractor continues to smoke, have it overhauled at a reputable garage. Test nozzles and recalibrate the fuel injection pump. Faulty fuel injection can increase fuel consumption by 25 %.
Never use oversized implements.
Service the engine regularly.
Dirt-your engine???s worst enemy
Good air filtration is important since tractors often operate in dusty condition. Research has proved that unfiltered air wears out cylinder bores 45 times faster and piston rings 115 times faster than normal. Good fuel filtration is important. Dirty fuel will endanger the engine. Use quality fuel filters and replace them as recommended.
Replace both fuel filters simultaneously.
Clean air filters regularly.
Wheels that slip waste diesel
Keep tractor wheels from slipping by adding water ballast's and/or cast iron weights. Add just the right amount of weight to keep wheel slippage to the minimum.
Worn out tyres reduce pulling power
Replug your tyres on time. While refitting tyres, make sure the ???V??? treads point downwards when viewed from the front.
Different tyre pressures are recommended for road and field work. Check your manual or ask a dealer.
atch hauling capacity with load
Choose implement size and tractor operating speed to match your engine???s full horsepower Run in the highest gear possible at which your tractor doesn???t smoke. If your tractor on full throttle accelerates even in the top gear, your implement is too small. A bigger implement or a multiple arrangement of implements may help you get the maximum benefit out of the tractor power and avoid diesel waste. You may consume up to 30% more fuel if you use undersized implements or operator at low speeds.
Consult an expert when selecting implements.
Plan your field run
Plough according to a planned layout that reduces idle running, backtracking and awkward turn. You will save diesel if you plough long furrows instead of short ones.
Your first openings must be straight and parallel.
Side lands and headlands should be ploughed around the field continuously without reploughing the field.